[Commentary] The Missing Link: CCP Developed Antidotes before the Pandemic
Author: MOS Writing Group billwilliam
In April, Mr. Miles Guo revealed the breaking news that Communist China has developed antidotes to SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). In the 1980s and 1990s, Communist China twice designated hydroxycholoroquine as a strategic medicine to cure flu for its military. According to Mr. Guo, some senior PLA officers take hydroxychloroquine routinely as prophylaxis. As shown by published articles, the CCP has studied the efficacy of chloroquine and its derivative hydroxychloroquine against various types of virus years before the pandemic.
Ningyi Jin, a PLA officer from the Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, authored a research article demonstrating that chloroquine is an effective inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 both in vitro and in vivo. Chloroquine improves cell viability in cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner and reduces viral load in the lungs of hACE2 transgenic mice. 
After binding with hACE2 receptors on the cell surface, SARS-CoV-2 virus is internalized by endocytosis, a process by which the cell takes in extracellular particles. As the virus is transported through a series of membrane-bound vesicles called endosomes, the virus requires endosomal acidification and pH-dependent cleavage of viral glycoprotein by endosomal proteases to be able to replicate in the host cell. Chloroquine, a weak base that raises pH level in endosomes, inhibits viral replication that relies on acidic condition in endosomes. 
Some people may argue that the development of therapeutics on SARS-CoV-2 is done in 2021, a year after the pandemic started. But scientists in Communist China have experimented with chloroquine’s inhibitory effects on other viruses many years ago. For example, Ningyi Jin and his colleagues published a letter in 2013, demonstrating chloroquine’s effectiveness against H5N1 avian influenza in mouse models.  H5N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2 are different viruses, yet they both rely on similar endosomal pathway to enter host cells and therefore are both inhibited by chloroquine.
In another scientific paper published in 2008, a group of scientists in Beijing used fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of chloroquine’s inhibitory effect on SARS-1. In short, chloroquine stalled endosomal transportation and inhibited viral replication in cells.  This paper demonstrates chloroquine can inhibit viruses that depend on the endosomal pathway for cell entry. SARS-1 and SARS-CoV-2 both bind with the same hACE2 receptor and enter cells by similar endosomal pathway, and therefore, it is not a surprise that chloroquine can inhibit infections by both viruses. The same anti-viral mechanism also applies to the H5N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, the 2008 scientific paper made this bold statement in its introduction section: “In addition to the likely reemergence of SARS, there are serious concerns about its potential misuse as a biological weapon.”  The CCP probably realized the suitability of SARS-like viruses for biowarfare more than a decade ago. In fact, PLA General Dezhong Xu averred in his textbook “The Unnatural Origin of SARS-1 and the Man-made Human Virus as a Genetic Bioweapon” that SARS-1 is an artificially created biological weapon. 
In summary, two papers published in 2008 and 2013 suggest Communist China is fully aware that chloroquine can inhibit the replication of certain viruses by blocking endosomal acidification years before the current pandemic. This medicine is also effective against SARS-CoV-2 that replies on a similar mechanism for cell entry.
Besides antidote development, the CCP also developed vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 before the pandemic, though the vaccines may not be effective. According to a retweet by retired US Army Colonel Lawrence Sellin, the PLA’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences applied for a vaccine patent as early as February 2020. Because vaccine development usually takes at least ten months or longer, it is highly likely that the CCP attempted developing vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 even before the pandemic began. 
Given the facts that SARS-CoV-2 is a lab-created virus optimized to infect humans and that the CCP developed antidotes before the onset of the pandemic, we have to question the CCP’s ulterior motives.
Proofread | Posted by Mr. Z
1. Shang, C. and et al. “Inhibitors of endosomal acidification suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and relieve viral pneumonia in hACE2 transgenic mice.” Virology Journal. (2021) 18: 46. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01515-1
2. Yan, Y. and et al. “Anti-malaria drug chloroquine is highly effective in treating avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in an animal model.” Cell Research. (2013) 23: 300-302. doi:10.1038/cr.2012.165
3. Wang, H. and et al. “SARS coronavirus entry into host cells through a novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway.” Cell Research. (2008) 18: 290-301. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.15
4. Xu, Dezhong. “The Unnatural Origin of SARS-1 and the Man-made Human Virus as a Genetic Bioweapon.” Military Medical Sciences Press. (2015) (book written in Chinese) ISBN: 978-7-5163-0587-4
5. Sellin, Lawrence. Tweet. April 29, 2021. https://twitter.com/LawrenceSellin/status/1387632646344294403?s=19
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